Archive for RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATION

Radio Interview: The Basic Needs Required for Any Student to Learn

Rae Pica with Kay Albrecht, Ph.D., Lori L Desautels, Ph.D., Peter DeWitt, Ed.D.

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Our guests say that if basic students’ needs are not met, learning is difficult and in some cases impossible. What are the basic needs that must be met to enable learning?

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Listen to Lori Live! WZPL 99.5 Thursday March 1st, 7:30am

Listen in live to Lori Desautels discuss “How May I Serve You. Revelations in Education”
WZPL 99.5
Thursday, March 1st, 7:30 am

http://player.streamtheworld.com/_players/entercom/player/?id=WZPL

 

Had a great conversation with Dave Smiley, KJ, Producer Will and Toni on “The Bullying Show” Link to the radio show is below!  Recorded on March 1 2012!

 

 

 

 

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Interview on WGN Radio

Listen to Author Lori Desautels discuss the book “How May I Serve You. Revelations in Education” with Bill Moller on WGN Radio in Chicago.

 

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Vulnerability: Looking Beneath the Behaviors and Words of Children and Adolescents

View Slide show: Compassion in Action
Vulnerability: Looking Beneath the Behaviors and Words of Children and Adolescents who are Yearning to Feel Loved and Accepted

Click Image to View Slide Show: Compassion in Action. Credit: Michael McKnight: Educator, Administrator and Advocate for all Children and Adolescents

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A Video Introduction About The Book

“How May I Serve You,” represents a bright beacon of hope on ways to solve the numerous problems plaguing America’s educational programs, reaching beyond the walls of schools and reform. The book shares a story inside a story because the brain and heart are attracted to and learn from patterns, emotions, shared perspectives and thoughts discovered inside the stories we share. Story-telling is familiar and a common denominator in all of our lives. We tell them, we read them, we listen to them and we make them up; and sometimes the power of a shared story is enough to reshape and redirect a perspective that broadens our view of life and all its possibilities….

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New Power Points on Mind Brain Education

Click image or links below to download powerpoints.

Brain Compatible Learning>
Brain Based Teaching and Learning>

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A Response to the Chinese Tiger Mother: Children Need a Balanced Approach

Original article posted on Inside The School, January 24th, 2011 By: Lori Desautels, Ph.D.


Editor’s note: In early January, the Wall Street Journal published a Saturday essay from Yale law professor and author of Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother. Chua’s essay advocates a Chinese approach to parenting, which is beyond the definition of strict for Western mothers. Click here to read Chua’s essay.

I suggested that Lori L Desautels, Ph.D., School of Education, Marian University, author of How May I Serve You, A Revelation in Education, offer a response to Chua’s essay, based on Desautels’ work.

Mother-daughter shopping trip“The Chinese Tiger Mother”- who is she and what are the sources, the origins of her parenting values and behaviors? So many thoughts about this, but one that runs succinctly throughout the reading of this article, a thought of “fear.” Initially I felt hot raw anger at this woman who shares my profession of parenting. The emotions began to stew and brew with no preconceived notions. And then I stopped in the midst of these steamy emotions and said out loud, “When we judge another’s experience, we forget, forfeiting to step inside the shoes of another and walk around for awhile feeling their texture, their plasticity or lack thereof, wondering or pondering the history of the wearer of the shoes!” When I stepped in her shoes, I was struck with deep fear. I felt fear of believing her own upbringing could have been less than adequate, fear of the type of parent she was or desired to be, but mostly, a deep fear of change!

I did not experience this mother’s upbringing, nor did I experience her culture or how her beliefs became a part of her day to day life. So as I continued to read and reread this article with flashes of anger and disillusionment, I remembered compassion and what that means or how it plays out in this diversified world today. Gathering research and discovering new knowledge is what I do for a living, teaching in higher education. There have been research studies conducted on the heightened stress levels of adolescents who text from their cell phones hundreds of times every day. Eric Jensen reports that the prevalence of children with a chronic or acute stress disorder is 18-20%.[1] The largest group of stress disordered victims is school-age children. Jensen explains, “Stress is a physiological response to a perspective. The perspective originates from a feeling of lack of control over a situation or environment. When this state occurs, a hyper secretion of cortisol, a stress related hormone takes place when the body experiences stress.” [2] It is known among neuroscientists and now educators, that the memory and mental clarity required in learning new concepts, is greatly affected and declines when stress is present and activated in a child or adolescent’s body.

mother and child at playAlthough the math and science scores are lower in the United States than in many Asian countries, a recent international study reported that “Chinese children as young as six are suffering from serious stress at school, according to the international study, which shines a light onto the pressures faced by Chinese youngsters being pushed to take advantage of the opportunities of the ‘new’ China.

“A scientific survey of 9 to 12-year-olds in eastern China found that more than 80 percent worried “a lot” about exams, two-thirds feared punishment by their teachers and almost three-quarters reported fearing physical punishment from their parents.”[3]

There is always a trade off and balancing mechanism in place when we consciously or subconsciously move to one extreme or the other in any area of life. When we push our children and students to strive academically neglecting the emotional intelligence of self-awareness, empathy and social connectedness, there are often times negative consequences within the social and emotional constructs of social and emotional growth. And if we do not set high expectations and place rigor and meaningful content and differentiated instruction into our curriculum, we may see apathetic students who do not embrace the importance and significance of educational learning, expansion and inquiry!

girl and her mother eating a picnic lunchSo I return to the behaviors of this Chinese woman and mother, and I wonder about the long-term effects, or maybe not-too-long-term effects of her children’s holistic development as she chooses to exclude the social, imaginative, and emotional development of her children? Human beings are social mammals, and we begin to diminish and withdraw without the relational learning that is required for holistic health and well-being. We thrive on relationships and the playfulness of school plays, sleep overs, joyful exploration and most of all sitting with questions! The brain is wired in this time for curiosity and play, seeking relevancy and meaning inside the activities and relationships of our lives.

Practice and more practice does make permanent, but it does not create critical thinking skills and creative problem solving that carry us through life experiences and relationship dilemmas, teaching our children and adolescents about empathy, reaching out to those so very different with a deepened understanding. The electromagnetic field of the heart is 60 or more times greater than that of the brain, reported by the Heartmath Institute, and it is here, inside the brain of the heart where living life is embraced; not with perfection but with satisfaction in the process of discovering life. [4] Failures and mistakes keep us pushing forward with enthusiasm as science has clearly demonstrated through the years, and if we hold the perspective of failures being our greatest learning tools, we cannot help but be and feel successful in all areas of our lives.

References:

[1] Jensen, Eric. Different Brains, Different Learners.  Corwin Press, (revised ed)  2009
[2] Jensen, Eric.
[3] Foster, Peter. “Third of Chinese primary school children suffer stress, study finds.” The Telegraph, January 19, 2010.  Accessed January 18, 2011. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/china/7027377/Third-of-Chinese-primary-school-children-suffer-stress-study-finds.html
[4] “The Resonant Heart–A Deep Secret of Peacemaking, ” last modified 2007, http://www.lawyertopeacemaker.com/heartmath.html

Lori Desautels, Ph.D., is a university supervisor for the Indianapolis Teaching Fellows and Teach for America programs. She is an instructor at both the undergraduate and graduate levels at Marian University in Indianapolis.  Before coming to Marian University, Lori taught emotionally handicapped students in the upper elementary grades, worked as a school counselor in Wayne Township, was a private practice counselor through the Indianapolis Counseling Center, and was a behavioral consultant for Methodist Hospital in the adolescent psychiatric unit. She graduated from Butler University with a BS in Special Education, from Indiana University with an MS in counseling, and earned her Ph.D. from The American Institute of Holistic Theology with an emphasis in early adolescence in thought formation. Desaultes’ website is at www.revelationineducation.com

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Find Your Inner Teacher

Below is an excerpt from an article in Pathways, Summer 2010, Volume 15, Number 2.  Download entire Pathways article.

Find Your Inner Teacher

Next to the parents, a heart-inspired teacher is the most important thing for children. Pun intended.
Working with students of all ages, Lori Desautels, Ph.D., has honed the skills of teaching from the heart for more than 25 years. She has helped young people rise above a host of obstacles—environmental, physical and mental health challenges— and to shine. She now brings these special skills to “teach the teachers” in three university programs.

As the mother of two teenagers and a preteen, naturally she has gained a nourishing pantry of “kitchen table wisdom” as well. Lori has seen her own children’s minds evolve and spirits dance, when given the attention of mindful, caring teachers. “People of all ages know when you are listening, intuitively, for what they may need as well as what they say. They know if you’re fully present, in the moment with them. And we all learn more deeply from the safe space of feeling understood. We all want kinship.”

She adds that during middle school years—which is part of her own teaching experience—there’s a conflicted continuumof childhood, adolescence and maturity. “Suddenly, peers’ opinions may take on greater significance than anyone’s, which is ironic in that they’re all bubbling in the same hormonal stew. Especially if there’s a troubling ongoing situation, it’s essential that students not feel judged. At this age, kids gain exponentially from hearing reflective observations and ideas regarding options rather than pat answers; then they can shift from a victim mentality by gaining a greater sense of personal responsibility.”

Lori says her AIHT dissertation research is how she discovered a new educational calling. “I wanted to embrace academic science and spirituality together, and our school principal was supportive. During 40-minute classes for 14 weeks, two groups of students interacted on topics such as: 1. Thoughts are energy, and our thoughts present us with opportunities to act in positive or negative ways; 2. In scientific research, positive thoughts are more than 100 times more powerful than negative thoughts; 3. By choosing to shift our thoughts, students and teachers have the ability to shift many outcomes too. In these classes and subsequent groups, school attendance and GPA improved!”

Encouraged to share her findings with the Dean of Education at Marian University, Lori soon joined the Indianapolis Teaching Fellows as a graduate mentor/supervisor. She also oversees needs assessments within a transitional graduate program, Teach for America, and is an undergraduate instructor.
Her upcoming book is entitled How May I Serve You? A Revelation in Education. Through anecdotes and archetypal mythology, its message for future teachers is to bring esoteric intuitive skills into the mainstream classroom, to “Find your inner teacher.”

In its prologue, Lori writes: “In this new paradigm I encourage you to explore your own perspectives, to see how rigid or pliable they feel. The contrast provided by opposing events or circumstances is the gift IF we choose to experience it that way… if we have the eyes to see and the imagination to delve into the active life of teaching and learning.”

Image Caption: “Ferris Wheel,” a poem by Lori Desautels, Ph.D., was chosen for Illuminations: Expressions of the Personal Spiritual Experience. Also featured among its 180-plus contributors from 43 countries are interviews with metaphysicians Marianne Williamson and Rev. Desmond Tutu, and creativity innovator Julia Cameron.

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Building Relationships = Positive and Effective Classroom Management

What do we do with students who are oppositional and easily engage in power struggles in our classrooms?

First, we observe.
We observe for patterns, times of day, what precipitated the outburst or aggression or who is involved. If it happens abruptly, without time to observe, we remind the student of class guidelines, state the guidelines that were broken in a very matter of fact way tone ( a loving detachment) we reinforce the consequences, quietly and one on one as to not create a bigger drama than has already occurred. If you choose to call a student out in front of their peers be prepared for bigger issues!

For me personally, there are three or four reasons a child or adolescent would consciously or subconsciously choose to act out, withdraw, or play with the the guidelines in an antagonistic way!

I am referring to the needs of children.
power, attention, trust, and need to succeed which is sometimes a paradox because this need looks like a fear of failing, but everyone wants to love, be loved and be accepted. No exceptions!

According to educator and author Rick Levine, social autopsies begin with observations and turning a problem into a learning opportunity

So once we have observed and written down all that has occurred, we go to the student and ask : What happened? What is going on today that felt so difficult for you? What can I do to help you so that this doesn’t happen again? Let’s look at this and find out how we can work it out. Where should we begin?

Then we begin to affirm and affirm and affirm and look for the positives even if we can only find one we find it state and build on it.

If the need is power and control, can we find some leadership opportunities in the class or in the school that will give this student a feeling of more power and control

If the need is attention, we remember that negative attention is better than no attention at all! So, what types of interests,  aptitudes and skills does this student have? This is why at the beginning of the school year, we must collect as much information about that student as possible so that we have a pool of ideas to pull from.

Choices and Voices, allow the students to create lessons, tests and teach what they are good at!

When you build community in your room you are setting up an environment that addresses the issues before they occur.

I have found through past mistakes and failures on my part, that when I feel I am getting heated and so angryand I am going to  lose a teachable moment, I am honest with my students and suggest a 10-15 minute break for both of us!! Please understand that children and adolescents who are struggling with oppositional behaviors, can reach a point of no return!! When this happens , there are no words or teaching strategies that work … only some space and time, experience and then REFLECTION and DISCUSSION to talk about how to prevent it from happening again.

HOPE is key, because as trite or as philosophical as this sounds, the moment you begin to see the best in those students who are struggling, they will pick up on this and see and begin to feel this also… Create moments of affirmation and success… use post it notes all the time! Use story telling, especially for the secondary students. They are never too old to hear a story. When the heat is on and tempers flare and the class begins to feel chaotic stop teaching and change directions … pull out a favorite book or audio tape , relax, and let the room settle…and pick these out as a class before you actually need them or begin to use then as a diversion.

Remember to communicate with parents early on so they feel that they are an important part of the educational environment in your room. Make the positive calls home catch the students in moments where even if John comes in and sits down without turning around to chat with his neighbor, you have observed this and reported it back to him in an uplifting way!

Remember the story from my book of Mr Pickett, catching Andrew in a great moment. This one comment changed Andrew’s feelings about the class and therefore his work ethic!

Below is pasted an experience I encountered many years ago that I have written about. I hope you enjoy it and learn a little too

Use one another as you build on your organic teaching styles that will always be malleable, and moving forward in a direction that aims for improvement even in the smallest doses.

Fall 1988
Mohawk Trails Elementary

The tension and malicious words struck the late afternoon classroom with the unexpected and brutal force of an ambush. Running through the door Brad screamed a language I was not prepared to handle. Three years prior, these words were not a part of my training as I arrogantly or maybe innocently sat in room 124 of Jordan Hall studying the pragmatic strategies and techniques of behavior management and Individualized Education Plans in one of many special education courses.

As he slammed his books on the desk and flung his chair against the wall, the class was startled into a quiet that I dreaded… Noise. I pleaded for any noise because it was much easier to swallow my ego and pride when there was classroom chaos distracting and drowning out my ineffectiveness as a young teacher as the vulgar words poised in mid air leaving me feeling helpless and alone. I just stood there frozen for 10 or 15 seconds waiting for a bigger more experienced person… just anyone to step in and make this all go away. It didn’t happen. I felt the sweat forming above my eyes and pooling under my arms. A distant pounding of a heart beating at an uncomfortable pace somewhere announced its cadence in my ears. Hearing Brad’s rapid breathing as his head slumped forward seeming to hang by a thread with all he had left, I hesitantly approached his desk. “I’m so sorry Brad. I am so sorry.” That is all I could say.
Maybe it would be enough?

December 2009

Twenty one years later recalling that afternoon and still feeling its contentious effects, I know those words, “I am sorry,” were enough. They were enough because some place deep down beyond textbooks, courses, and intense teacher training; my heart took over and responded from a place of understanding that could’t be taught. Brad did not give up in school and though he had difficult days, as his home environment continued to present stressful and oppressed experiences, he discovered the steadfast reserves in his heart that innately belonged to him.

Three weeks ago I received a call from Brad, now 32 years old. He asked if we could meet for coffee. I was overwhelmed with the thought of reconnecting with him once again. As I shuffled, stalling, and shuffling some more across Guilford Avenue, I hesitantly walked through the double glass doors of the small coffee shop in Broadripple, my head filled with questions as to how this meeting would unfold. My shuffling and doubts disappeared as his familiar grin greeted me at the corner two top. The small gas flames burning inside the circular stone fireplace reflected the warmth felt in my chest as a young man timidly waved his arm in the air calling me back…back into that classroom of learning and teaching so many years ago. We talked about life and the places we had traveled. Preparing to leave, I began digging for my keys from the bottom of my purse. It was somewhere in that moment a mountain of gratitude leaped inside every cell of my body-for Brad had found a place in the world and was living well.

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Brains at Risk and What Can We Do

Brains at Risk

  How May I Serve You?

When you love and are passionate about what you do, you will see and experience each and every time positive results!

Can a brain that has been disadvantaged by adverse genetics or life experiences be substantially enriched? The answer is YES!!

What is poverty? It is much more than not enough money in the checkbook. Poverty is a condition where there is a chronic and significant lack of access to resources. Nearly 19% of all children come from low-income families and probably greater percentage in the last couple of years.

Life experiences are Brain Experiences

To affect change in your students with brains at risk, we will provide enrichment to the teaching environment  Hope is science and it matters in enrichment of the brain when alleviating stress

One in nine of all students between the ages of 6 and 13 can be regarded as having a some form of disability.

Enrichment as Educational Policy!

The ethical moral and biological mandate for all schools is to maximize human potential!  We will only get this effect when we get serious enough to create policy that works for every learner across the board.

50 hours a week are up for grabs for enrichment, when we use this time well, the sky is the limit!

Brain Trivia

The brain is poorly designed for formal instruction. It is not at all designed for efficiency and order. It develops best through selection and survival.

What is Intelligence?

It is diverse, dynamic and distinct- mostly it changes because of neural connections or lack thereof!

Humans innately have a propensity to be creative. As teachers, the question we need to ask ourselves is: “How can we make the horse thirsty so that it will want to drink from the trough?”

No intelligence or ability will unfold unless it is given the appropriate model environment.

It is not the individual cells in the brain that make us smart; it is the connection between cells.

Glial cells- ten times more concentrated than neurons. We have about 1,000 billion of these at birth. These cells are much more active than neurons. They are responsible for transportation of nutrients and support regulation of the immune system. They contribute greatly to the learning process.

Physiological process of Learning

Electrical impulses travel down the axon where it triggers the release of neurotransmitters in the synaptic gap.

Cortisol is a neurotransmitter and when high levels are released on a continuous basis brain cells are impaired or killed which impairs learning!

Cerebellum is one tenth the size of the brain, but it contains one half of the neurons. It is here where we process much of our learning besides movement, posture and balance. There is a strong connection between motor skills and cognitive skills. Movement inspires learning!!

Rhythms of the Brain!

Exercise is hugely important. It enhances circulation as  individual neurons acquire  more oxygen and nutrients. Exercise spurs the growth of a hormone called Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor which enhances brain function! Aerobic exercise improves thinking and learning, so give your students permission to get up and move around… make time for even a couple of minutes before students take a test!. Physical performance is estimated to use 100% of the brain. There is no known cognitive activity that can do this! Exercise enhances mood, learning and memory. Regular exercise may stimulate new brain cells and prolong the survival of existing cells.

In her book, Mapping the Mind, Rita Carter states that the teaching and learning process is about relationships and emotions!

What can we do as Educators?

  1. Share about yourself… what do you believe? What are your life rules? Sharing your own thoughts and dreams develops a model of trust.
  2. Powerful stories operate at the conscious and subconscious levels challenging or confirming our thoughts. The brain is a meaning making organ, so stories followed by discussions enhance the process. Tell the story rather than read it and move to area that is conducive for story telling and gathering.

Stress Reduction

There are three purposes of the brain: Survival, Meeting Emotional Needs and Cognitive Learning.

High stress is a barrier to learning as it reduces blood flow to the prefrontal cortex which is the center for decision-making- when a student is stressed, the results are impaired memory, decreased ability to prioritize, increased rote memory and damage to the immune system. There is also accelerated aging and a weakened ability to creatively respond to any event or experience! Share this information with your students!

Biological Differences in the Learning and Stress in the Brain

When there is uncertainty this causes the Amygdala to send a message to the hypothalamus which begins the chemical cascade to the adrenals and then to the cortisol or noradrenaline which are hormones and a temporary form of energy … it is helpful until it is overused and then wreaks havoc on the brain over the course of days, weeks and months.

High stress means low serotonin levels which are risk factors for aggression and violence!!!

Amygdala is the seat or at the center of our fear and threat responses It focuses our attention and is connected to the hippocampus and is greatly affected by stress and therefore the ability to think clearly and remember!

Stress can kill neurons and disrupts the production of neurons. Chronic stress impairs a student’s ability to sort out what is important and what is not, which is how we learn through our perceptual mapping skills. Reduced levels of the neurotransmitter Serotonin is a worry because it is a modulator for our emotions!

So what can we do as teachers with our students who are experiencing stress, and please remember it is not the stress itself but one’s ability to perceive and cope with the so-called stress! Coping skills, although they do not fall under the three R’s of education are imperative skills for students to acquire! As educators, we can make a difference!!

  1. We identify the core stress- what is going on? How can I help you? What do you need? Is there anything I can try and do to make this better?
  2. We then create and awareness of the alternatives- brainstorming through mind-mapping
  3. We work towards a desirable change, because students need to perceive there is a solution to the problem or challenge. Students also need to know that they have a sense of control over a negative situation.
  4. We need to allow time for reflection and feedback.

So we avoid calling on learners unless they volunteer, we avoid discipline policies that are grounded in fear and threat. We avoid any embarrassment to students –more frequent reviews, feedback and remedial support. We need to increase our discussions about fear, worries or causes of stress. Incorporate small group activities.

Most important we allow them to be designers and creators in the classroom, while we always activate prior learning before we introduce new content!

I will be placing more strategies in this post but I wanted to give you a brief overview of a brain at risk and what we can begin to understand than then actively address.

Information from Eric Jensen, Educator, Author, and specialist in neuroscience in education

YouTube – A Vision of Students Today

New Article

 

Engaging the Whole Child (online only)   

The Neuroscience of Joyful Education 

Judy Willis 

Brain research tells us that when the fun stops, learning often stops too. 

Most children can’t wait to start kindergarten and approach the beginning of school with awe and anticipation. Kindergartners and 1st graders often talk passionately about what they learn and do in school. Unfortunately, the current emphasis on standardized testing and rote learning encroaches upon many students’ joy. In their zeal to raise test scores, too many policymakers wrongly assume that students who are laughing, interacting in groups, or being creative with art, music, or dance are not doing real academic work. The result is that some teachers feel pressure to preside over more sedate classrooms with students on the same page in the same book, sitting in straight rows, facing straight ahead. 

Supporting Good Teaching Practices with Neuroscience

The truth is that when we scrub joy and comfort from the classroom, we distance our students from effective information processing and long-term memory storage. Instead of taking pleasure from learning, students become bored, anxious, and anything but engaged. They ultimately learn to feel bad about school and lose the joy they once felt. 

My own experience as a neurologist and classroom teacher has shown me the benefits of joy in the classroom. Neuroimaging studies and measurement of brain chemical transmitters reveal that students’ comfort level can influence information transmission and storage in the brain (Thanos et al., 1999). When students are engaged and motivated and feel minimal stress, information flows freely through the affective filter in the amygdala and they achieve higher levels of cognition, make connections, and experience “aha” moments. Such learning comes not from quiet classrooms and directed lectures, but from classrooms with an atmosphere of exuberant discovery (Kohn, 2004). 

The Brain-Based Research

Neuroimaging and neurochemical research support an education model in which stress and anxiety are not pervasive (Chugani, 1998; Pawlak, Magarinos, Melchor, McEwan, & Strickland, 2003). This research suggests that superior learning takes place when classroom experiences are enjoyable and relevant to students’ lives, interests, and experiences. 

Many education theorists (Dulay & Burt, 1977; Krashen, 1982) have proposed that students retain what they learn when the learning is associated with strong positive emotion. Cognitive psychology studies provide clinical evidence that stress, boredom, confusion, low motivation, and anxiety can individually, and more profoundly in combination, interfere with learning (Christianson, 1992). 

Neuroimaging and measurement of brain chemicals (neurotransmitters) show us what happens in the brain during stressful emotional states. By reading glucose or oxygen use and blood flow, positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) indicate activity in identifiable regions of the brain. These scans demonstrate that under stressful conditions information is blocked from entering the brain’s areas of higher cognitive memory consolidation and storage. In other words, when stress activates the brain’s affective filters, information flow to the higher cognitive networks is limited and the learning process grinds to a halt. 

Neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG) brain mapping of subjects in the process of learning new information reveal that the most active areas of the brain when new sensory information is received are the somatosensory cortex areas. Input from each individual sense (hearing, touch, taste, vision, smell) is delivered to these areas and then matched with previously stored related memories. 

For example, the brain appears to link new words about cars with previously stored data in the category of transportation. Simultaneously, the limbic system, comprising parts of the temporal lobe, hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex (front part of the frontal lobe), adds emotional significance to the information (sour flavor is tasty in lemon sherbet but unpleasant in spoiled juice). Such relational memories appear to enhance storage of the new information in long-term memory (Andreasen et al., 1999). 

Mapping studies of the electrical activity (EEG or brain waves) and neuroimaging show the synchronization of brain activity as information passes from the somatosensory cortex areas to the limbic system (Andreasen et al., 1999). For example, bursts of brain activity from the somatosensory cortex are followed milliseconds later by bursts of electrical activity in the hippocampus, amygdala, and then the other parts of the limbic system (Sowell et al., 2003). This enables us to evaluate which strategies either stimulate or impede communication among the various parts of the brain (Shadmehr & Holcomb, 1997). 

RAD Lessons for the Classroom

A common theme in brain research is that superior cognitive input to the executive function networks is more likely when stress is low and learning experiences are relevant to students. Lessons that are stimulating and challenging are more likely to pass through the reticular activating system (a filter in the lower brain that focuses attention on novel changes perceived in the environment). Classroom experiences that are free of intimidation may help information pass through the amygdala’s affective filter. In addition, when classroom activities are pleasurable, the brain releases dopamine, a neurotransmitter that stimulates the memory centers and promotes the release of acetylcholinem, which increases focused attention. 

The acronym RAD can remind educators of three important neuroscience concepts to consider when preparing lessons:

  • Novelty promotes information transmission through the Reticular activating system.
  • Stress-free classrooms propel data through the Amygdala’s affective filter.
  • Pleasurable associations linked with learning are more likely to release more Dopamine.

 

There are no neuroimaging or brain wave analysis data that demonstrate a negative effect of joy and exuberance in classrooms, yet some schools have unspoken mandates against these valuable components of the classroom experience. Now that hard science proves the negative effects of stress and anxiety, teachers can more confidently promote enthusiasm in their classrooms. 

Planning for the Ideal Emotional Atmosphere

Although it is valuable for teachers to be familiar with neuroscientific research and pass relevant findings along to education stakeholders, it is crucial that educators use classroom strategies that reflect what we know about the brain and learning. So how can teachers create environments where anxiety is low while providing enough challenge and novelty for suitable brain stimulation? 

Make it relevant.

When stress in the classroom is getting high, it is often because a lesson is overly abstract or seems irrelevant to students. Teachers can reduce this type of stress by making the lesson more personally interesting and motivating. Ideally, students should be able to answer the question, “Why are we learning about this?” at any point in a lesson. 

Teachers can find valuable background materials and human interest connections in textbooks published in the 1990s, before many publishers dropped such information to make room for practice test questions. The Internet is a source of many teacher-shared lesson plans and links to Web sites that provide resources for student activities and information databases that bring the more fact-heavy lessons to life. These are just a few Web sites that teachers can mine for ideas:

 

It is not always possible to explain the immediate relevance of every lesson. In math, for example, students must master certain skills before they can go on to investigate larger, more clearly relevant topics. One way to increase the emotional connection is by adapting word problems so that they include the names of students, popular celebrities, historical figures, or sports heroes. Similarly, problems about interest rates can relate to purchasing something the students would want to buy, such as an iPod or new sneakers. Students can learn about decimal place values by calculating batting averages to the thousandth place. 

Language arts teachers can combine lessons on formal letter writing with a study of ethics or advertising. Students select a television commercial or print ad they judge to be misleading and write a letter expressing that opinion to the company in question. Students can compare historical fact and fiction by reading texts, examining primary sources, and viewing movies. 

In science classes dealing with the differences between mixtures and solutions, students can predict which liquids in their homes are mixtures and which are solutions. At home, they test their predictions by seeing which items are in separate layers until shaken. Or instead of just studying facts about pollution, students can learn to take and test water samples (www.baylink.org/lessons/3fr_pollution.html). 

When a lesson or block of lessons is full of facts to memorize, students will often feel less stress when they see an intrinsic reward for their efforts, such as using the facts they’ve mastered as a tool for participating in a more appealing activity. For example, when students know the metric to standard measurement conversions, they can “translate” a recipe from a cookbook that uses metric measures into the quantities they need in U.S. standard measurements to prepare cookie dough in class. 

Give them a break.

Just like adults, students can reduce stress by enjoying hobbies, time with friends, exercise, or music. Even though schools are shortening recess, physical education, art, drama, and even lunchtime to add more time for core subjects, teachers can give students a three-minute vacation to reduce stress. Any pleasurable activity used as a brief break can give the amygdala a chance to cool down and the neurotransmitters time to rebuild. 

Create positive associations.

Eliminating all stress from students’ lives is impossible. However, even if previous classroom experiences have led to associations that link certain activities, such as memorizing multiplication tables, to a stress response from the amygdala, students can benefit from revisiting the activity without something negative happening. By avoiding stressful practices like calling on students who have not raised their hands, teachers can dampen the stress association. 

Students can develop positive associations with multiplication by practicing it with a positively reinforcing strategy. For example, they might first review the table for multiplying by eight, then fill in blanks on a worksheet and immediately check each written answer with a calculator. If the answer is correct, the student experiences instant positive reinforcement. If the answer is incorrect, the student sees the right answer on the calculator—a much more pleasurable experience than hearing a classmate call out the answer before the student can even begin to compute it. 

In a similar way, students can build on their neurochemical memories of positive feelings if they have opportunities to recognize and savor their successes. A posted “Personal Goal Achievement” list, for example, acknowledges all students’ successes. Students set personal goals, such as learning a specific multiplication table, and their names go on this list when they achieve their goals. Unlike the more typical competitive list of scores or lists of students who have mastered specific skills, this goal achievement list includes only the names of students who have met their goals, not the actual goals themselves. 

Prioritize information.

It is helpful for teachers to guide students in learning how to prioritize information—how to decide what facts are worthy of writing down and reviewing when studying. When teachers demonstrate and explain how they determine which facts are important, students see how to make those judgments for themselves as they read texts and study. Helping students learn how to prioritize and therefore reduce the amount of information they need to deal with is a valuable stress-buster. 

Allow independent discovery learning.

Thanks to dopamine release and the consolidation of relational memories, students are more likely to remember and understand what they learn if they find it compelling or have a part in figuring it out for themselves. In addition, when students have some choices in the way they will study or report on something, their motivation will increase and stress will diminish. They will be more accepting of their errors, motivated to try again, and less self-conscious about asking questions. 

A Safe Haven

Classrooms can be the safe haven where academic practices and classroom strategies provide students with emotional comfort and pleasure as well as knowledge. When teachers use strategies to reduce stress and build a positive emotional environment, students gain emotional resilience and learn more efficiently and at higher levels of cognition. Brain-imaging studies support this relationship. 

References

Andreasen, N. C., O’Leary, D. S., Paradiso, S., Cizaldo, T., Arndt, S., Watkins, G. L., et al. (1999). The cerebellum plays a role in conscious episodic memory retrieval. Human Brain Mapping, 8(4), 226–234. 

Christianson, S.A. (1992). Emotional stress and eyewitness memory: A critical review. Psychological Bulletin, 112(2), 284–309. 

Chugani, H. T. (1998). Biological basis of emotions: Brain systems and brain development. Pediatrics, 102, 1225–1229. 

Dulay, H., & Burt, M. (1977). Remarks on creativity in language acquisition. In M. Burt, H. Dulay, & M. Finocchiaro (Eds.), Viewpoints on English as a second language. New York: Regents. 

Kohn, A. (2004). Feel-bad education. Education Week, 24(3), 44–45. 

Krashen, S. (1982). Theory versus practice in language training. In R. W. Blair (Ed.), Innovative approaches to language teaching (pp. 25–27). Rowley, MA: Newbury House. 

Pawlak, R., Magarinos, A. M., Melchor, J., McEwen, B., & Strickland, S. (2003). Tissue plasminogen activator in the amygdala is critical for stress-induced anxiety-like behavior. Nature Neuroscience, 6(2), 168–174. 

Shadmehr, R., and Holcomb, H. H. (1997). Neural correlates of motor memory consolidation. Science, 277, 821–825. 

Sowell, E. R., Peterson, B. S., Thompson, P. M., Welcome, S. E., Henkenius, A. L., Toga, A. W., (2003). Mapping cortical change across the human life span. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 309–315. 

Thanos, P. K., Katana, J. M., Ashby, C. R., Michaelides, M., Gardner, E. L., Heidbreder, C. A., et al. (1999). The selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist SB-277011-A attenuates ethanol consumption in ethanol preferring (P) and non-preferring (NP) rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 81(1), 190–197. 


Judy Willis (jwillisneuro@aol.com; www.RADTeach.com) practiced neurology for 20 years and currently teaches at Santa Barbara Middle School. She is the author of Research-Based Strategies to Ignite Student Learning: Insights from a Neurologist/Classroom Teacher (ASCD, 2006; http://shop.ascd.org/productdisplay.cfm?productid=107006) and Brain-Friendly Strategies for the Inclusion Classroom (ASCD, 2007; http://shop.ascd.org/productdisplay.cfm?productid=107040). 

 


Copyright © 2007 by Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development 

 
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